Die Startposition eines jeden Spieles ist unten abgebildet. Weiss spielt in diesem Fall von oben rechts nach unten links (in sein Heimfeld), Schwarz von unten. Startaufstellung der Blots. Welche Fachbegriffe sollte man bei. Die Backgammon Aufstellung ist symmetrisch. Gespielt wird mit 15 weissen respektive schwarzen Steinen. Auf dem 1. bzw. Point liegen zwei.
BackgammonSpielanleitung/Spielregeln Backgammon (Anleitung/Regel/Regeln), BrettspielNetz. Startaufstellung der Blots. Welche Fachbegriffe sollte man bei. Die Backgammon Aufstellung ist symmetrisch. Gespielt wird mit 15 weissen respektive schwarzen Steinen. Auf dem 1. bzw. Point liegen zwei.
Backgammon Aufstellung Start Navigation menu Video#1 - Backgammon \u0026 Tavla - Tutorial: Grundregeln
Handy M solch Backgammon Aufstellung Start QualitГt an Willkommensbonus erwarten wir von den besten Casinos. - InhaltsverzeichnisWenn eine oder mehrere Zahlen nicht regelgerecht gezogen werden können, verfallen sie.
Wurden die Blots bzw. Steine auf das Spielfeld aufgestellt, angeordnet und die Spieler sind bereit das Spiel zu beginnen würfelt jeder Spieler einen Würfel, der Spieler mit der höheren Augenzahl beginnt zu spielen.
Wurde am Anfang ein Pasch gewürfelt, wird erneut gewürfelt, bis ein Spieler eine höhere Augennzahl bei einem Würfel hat.
Das Backgammon Set up ist somit abgeschlossen und der Spiel Start kann beginnen. Die Backgammon Regeln sind denkbar einfach und schnell verinnerlicht.
Nachdem das Spielfeld aufgebaut wurde, komm der Beginn: Der Spielstart von Backgammon ist etwas anders als die weiteren Züge.
Um Backgammon zu starten muss um den ersten Zug gewürfelt werden. Die beiden Spieler würfeln jeder mit einem eigenen Würfel je einmal.
Er muss somit die Beiden Zahlen verwenden, welche durch die unterschiedlichen Würfel gewürfelt wurden.
Würfeln die beiden Spieler jeweils die gleiche Augenzahl, wird der Wurf so lange wiederholt, bis es unterschiedliche Zahlen gibt. Sind diese Informationen hilfreich gewesen?
Bei Backgammon wird entschieden wer beginnt aufgrund der höheren Augenzahl eines Würfels. So würfelt jeder Spieler mit einem seiner zwei Würfel.
Der Spieler, welcher die höhere Augenzahl gewürfel hat, beginnt und nutzt gleichzeitig seinen und den Würfel des MItspielers um die ersten Steine zu setzen.
Die Steine werden auf dem Spielfeld verteilt, sowohl im Heimfeld als auch im generischen Feld und werden im Laufe des Spiels über die einzelnen Spitzen ins das eigene Heimfeld bewegt.
Wenn in einem Backgammon Spiel um Geld oder Punkte gespielt wird, kann der Verdopplungswürfel genutzt werden um den Einsatz zu verdoppeln.
Der Mitspieler kann die Verdopplung annehmen oder ablehnen. What's new in this version Enjoy a new design and user experience!
Features Easy to learn gameplay One and two player modes Doubling cube and Crawford rule Neural network AI provides 4 difficulty modes Customize your themes and piece colors.
Approximate size Age rating For all ages. Category Strategy. This app can Access your Internet connection Microsoft. Permissions info. Installation Get this app while signed in to your Microsoft account and install on up to ten Windows 10 devices.
This version of Backgammon uses an advanced neural network in the highest levels, and will challenge advanced players.
It also offers a fun experience for beginners, with lower difficulty levels and showing possible moves. The scoring is based on the official Backgammon ELO system, with each game increasing or reducing rating points every game or match.
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Privacy Statement. Backgammon Pro. For example, players may position all of their blots in such a way that the opponent must roll a 2 in order to hit any of them, reducing the probability of being hit more than once.
Many positions require a measurement of a player's standing in the race, for example, in making a doubling cube decision, or in determining whether to run home and begin bearing off.
The minimum total of pips needed to move a player's checkers around and off the board is called the "pip count". The difference between the two players' pip counts is frequently used as a measure of the leader's racing advantage.
Players often use mental calculation techniques to determine pip counts in live play. Backgammon is played in two principal variations, "money" and "match" play.
Money play means that every point counts evenly and every game stands alone, whether money is actually being wagered or not. The format has a significant effect on strategy.
In a match, the objective is not to win the maximum possible number of points, but rather to simply reach the score needed to win the match.
For example, a player leading a 9-point match by a score of 7—5 would be very reluctant to turn the doubling cube, as their opponent could take and make a costless redouble to 4, placing the entire outcome of the match on the current game.
Conversely, the trailing player would double very aggressively, particularly if they have chances to win a gammon in the current game. In money play, the theoretically correct checker play and cube action would never vary based on the score.
In , Emmet Keeler and Joel Spencer considered the question of when to double or accept a double using an idealized version of backgammon.
In their idealized version, the probability of winning varies randomly over time by Brownian motion , and there are no gammons or backgammons.
To reduce the possibility of cheating, most good quality backgammon sets use precision dice and a dice cup. Online cheating has therefore become extremely difficult.
In State of Oregon v. Barr , a court case pivotal to the continued widespread organised playing of backgammon in the US, the State argued that backgammon is a game of chance and that it was therefore subject to Oregon's stringent gambling laws.
Paul Magriel was a key witness for the defence, contradicting Roger Nelson, the expert prosecution witness, by saying, "Game theory, however, really applies to games with imperfect knowledge, where something is concealed, such as poker.
Backgammon is not such a game. Everything is in front of you. The person who uses that information in the most effective manner will win.
Walker concluded that backgammon is a game of skill, not a game of chance, and found the defendant, backgammon tournament director Ted Barr, not guilty of promoting gambling.
Early Muslim scholars forbade backgammon. Enthusiasts have formed clubs for social play of backgammon. A backgammon chouette permits three or more players to participate in a single game, often for money.
One player competes against a team of all the other participants, and positions rotate after each game. Chouette play often permits the use of multiple doubling cubes.
Backgammon clubs may also organize tournaments. Large club tournaments sometimes draw competitors from other regions, with final matches viewed by hundreds of spectators.
Winners at major tournaments may receive prizes of tens of thousands of dollars. Starting in January , tournament directors began awarding GammonPoints,  a free points registry for tournament directors and players, with GammonPoint awards based on the number of players and strength of field.
The first world championship competition in backgammon was held in Las Vegas , Nevada in Tim Holland was declared the winner that year and at the tournament the following year.
For unknown reasons, there was no championship in , but in , Tim Holland again won the title. In , Lewis Deyong, who had promoted the Bahamas World Championship for the prior three years, suggested that the two events be combined.
By the 21st century, the largest international tournaments had established the basis of a tour for top professional players.
Major tournaments are held yearly worldwide. PartyGaming sponsored the first World Series of Backgammon in from Cannes and later the "Backgammon Million" tournament held in the Bahamas in January with a prize pool of one million dollars, the largest for any tournament to date.
The event was recorded for television in Europe and aired on Eurosport. In , the WBA collaborated with the online backgammon provider Play65 for the season of the European Backgammon Tour and with "Betfair" in When backgammon is played for money , the most common arrangement is to assign a monetary value to each point, and to play to a certain score, or until either player chooses to stop.
The stakes are raised by gammons, backgammons, and use of the doubling cube. Backgammon is sometimes available in casinos.
Before the commercialization of artificial neural network programs, proposition bets on specific positions were very common among backgammon players and gamblers.
The game is included in Clubhouse Games: 51 Worldwide Classics for the Nintendo Switch , a collection of tabletop games.
Backgammon software has been developed not only to play and analyze games, but also to facilitate play between humans over the internet.
Dice rolls are provided by random or pseudorandom number generators. Real-time online play began with the First Internet Backgammon Server in July ,   but there are now a range of options,  many of which are commercial.
Backgammon has been studied considerably by computer scientists. Neural networks and other approaches have offered significant advances to software for gameplay and analysis.
The first strong computer opponent was BKG 9. Early versions of BKG played badly even against poor players, but Berliner noticed that its critical mistakes were always at transitional phases in the game.
He applied principles of fuzzy logic to improve its play between phases, and by July , BKG 9. It won the match 7—1, becoming the first computer program to defeat a world champion in any board game.
Berliner stated that the victory was largely a matter of luck, as the computer received more favorable dice rolls.
In the late s, backgammon programmers found more success with an approach based on artificial neural networks. Its neural network was trained using temporal difference learning applied to data generated from self-play.
Tesauro proposed using rollout analysis to compare the performance of computer algorithms against human players. The rollout score of the human or the computer is the difference of the average game results by following the selected move versus following the best move, then averaged for the entire set of taken moves.
The strength of these programs lies in their neural networks' weights tables, which are the result of months of training.
Without them, these programs play no better than a human novice. For the bearoff phase, backgammon software usually relies on a database containing precomputed equities for all possible bearoff positions.
Computer-versus-computer competitions are also held at Computer Olympiad events. The artifacts included two dice and 60 checkers, and the set is believed to be to years older than the Royal Game of Ur.
On the board found at Shahr-e Sukhteh, the fields are represented by the coils of a snake. Touraj Daryaee —on the subject of the first written mention of early precursors of backgammon—writes:.
The use of dice for the game is another indication of its Indic origin since dice and gambling were a favorite pastime in ancient India.
If a player is able to enter some but not all of his checkers, he must enter as many as he can and then forfeit the remainder of his turn.
After the last of a player's checkers has been entered, any unused numbers on the dice must be played, by moving either the checker that was entered or a different checker.
Bearing Off. Once a player has moved all of his fifteen checkers into his home board, he may commence bearing off. A player bears off a checker by rolling a number that corresponds to the point on which the checker resides, and then removing that checker from the board.
Thus, rolling a 6 permits the player to remove a checker from the six point. If there is no checker on the point indicated by the roll, the player must make a legal move using a checker on a higher-numbered point.
If there are no checkers on higher-numbered points, the player is permitted and required to remove a checker from the highest point on which one of his checkers resides.
A player is under no obligation to bear off if he can make an otherwise legal move. Figure 5. White rolls and bears off two checkers. A player must have all of his active checkers in his home board in order to bear off.
If a checker is hit during the bear-off process, the player must bring that checker back to his home board before continuing to bear off. The first player to bear off all fifteen checkers wins the game.
Backgammon is played for an agreed stake per point. Each game starts at one point. During the course of the game, a player who feels he has a sufficient advantage may propose doubling the stakes.